The Foot Anatomy

By Drew Heideman, MPT, ATC, PES

What are the Parts of the Foot Called?

The feet are flexible structures of bones, joints, muscles, and soft tissues. They allow us to perform activities like walking, running, and jumping.

Bones of the Foot

The foot is divided into sections:

  • The forefoot contains the five toes (phalanges) and the five longer bones (metatarsals).
  • The midfoot is a pyramid-like collection of bones that form the arches of the feet. These include the three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone, and the navicular bone.
  • The hind foot forms the heel and ankle. The talus bone supports the leg bones (tibia and fibula), forming the ankle. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest bone in the foot.
The bones of the foot anatomy.

Bones of the Foot

Where Does a Bunion Occur?

A bunion is a bony protrusion at the base of your big toe that occurs when your big toe angles toward your next toe. The joint and bone at the base of your big toe are thrust out beyond the normal profile of the foot, producing a recognizable bump. Therefore, bunions can start out as small bumps, but sometimes can be large and are accompanied by redness and swelling.

X-ray of a bunion

Image of a Bunion on X-ray

Foot Anatomy Muscles

Muscles, tendons, and ligaments run along the surfaces of the feet. This allows the complex movements that are required for motion and balance. The Achilles tendon connects the heel to the calf muscle and is essential for running, jumping, and standing on the toes. The plantar fascia is a fibrous band of tissue located at the bottom of the foot. Also, it is a common source of pain in the foot when it becomes inflamed.

bottom of Foot diagram showing the bottom anatomy of a foot. JOI Rehab

Muscles of the Foot

The image below identifies more muscles of the foot.  The muscles of the foot stabilize the foot for weight bearing activities and allow for movement of the foot and toes.  Plantar Fasciitis is the most common condition of the foot.   Please read this article to learn more about the treatment of this condition.

Muscles in the foot labeled diagram. JOI Rehab

Muscles in the Foot

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Treatment of the Foot at JOI Rehab

Whether you are suffering from foot issues, joint pain, or injuries resulting from any type of activity, give us a call.  JOI has 12 physical therapy clinics conveniently located in Jacksonville and Northeast FL.  Therefore, our goal is to get you back to the activities and sports that you love.  JOI has several specialty trained foot and ankle orthopedic surgeons to help you with your foot pain.

All JOI Physicians, Physical Therapists and Occupational Therapists now offer Telemedicine services for virtual visits from the convenience of your home.

  • To schedule a new patient or follow up patient appointment with your MD, please call (904)JOI-2000.
  • Finally, to schedule an appointment for physical or occupational therapy, call 904-858-7045 or call any of the 12 area JOI Rehab Centers.  JOI Rehab also can fit you with custom orthotics at a reasonable price.  This is part of our goal to keep you healthy!

By: Drew Heideman, MPT, ATC, PES

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